(2017) International Journal of Information Management, 37, 3, 162-165. (Indexing)
Theory of Digital Objects (TDO) can be considered as one of the important theories for explaining distinctive attributes and social practices of digital objects. The main aim of this study is to determine the role and position of digital identifiers and digital identifier systems in social practices of TDO. Results of applying comparative evaluation method demonstrated that the digital identifier systems can be considered as a third approach called identifiable Web, among memorable and navigable web in TDO. Moreover functions, technologically-induced tensions, challenges, counter mechanisms and emerging practices of the proposed approach had been investigated in contrast with the two existing social practices approaches. Results of this study could provide new ideas to administrators and researchers of these systems for promoting them from the sociotechnical aspect.
Theory of Digital Objects (TDO), Digital Identifier, Social Practice, Identifiable Web
During the recent years, one of the issues considered by the banks in the field of internet banking is the adoption of corporate internet banking by corporate clients. The present article tried to examine the factors affecting adoption of corporate internet banking (CIB) by corporate clients based on the Perceived Risk Theory. The research hypotheses were tested using confirmatory factor analysis and the results showed that there was a significant relationship between all the risks and intent to adopt corporate internet banking by the corporate clients of the banks. The major factors decreasing the intent to adopt internet banking include performance, privacy, security, financial, time, and social risks respectively. Based on the findings of the present study and similar studies, a comparison was made between the importance of the dimensions of perceived risk in personal and corporate internet banking and suggestions were made for decreasing the effects of these significant risks for the corporate clients to adopt corporate internet banking.
corporate internet banking, adoption of technology, corporate clients, perceived risk theory
One of the major issues banks are faced with in providing Internet Banking (IB) services is the adoption of these services by the customers. This study seeks answer to the question that whether bank customers’ awareness of the services and advantages of IB is effective in reducing the negative effect of customers’ perceived risk on their intention of IB adoption. To this end, the two constructs of the dimensions of the perceived risk and IB awareness are simultaneously considered. Besides, in the research model, the effect of IB awareness on each dimension of the perceived risk and the effect of these dimensions on intention of IB adoption by the customers are investigated. The results indicate that IB awareness acts as a factor reducing all dimensions of the perceived risk (including time, financial, performance, social, security, and privacy). In addition, it was found out that except for social risk, other dimensions of the perceived risk have significantly negative effect on the intention of IB adoption. Finally, proving the direct and positive effect of IB awareness on adoption intention, it was concluded that the dimensions of customers’ perceived risk plays a mediating role in the positive effect of IB awareness on IB adoption intention. In this respect, management approaches centered on the concept of IB awareness are offered for reducing the dimensions of customers’ perceived risk.
Internet banking, Adoption, Dimensions of the perceived risk, Awareness
This paper presents a systematic review of 165 research articles published on the adoption of Internet banking (IB) between 1999 and 2012. The results show that interest in the topic of IB adoption has grown significantly during this period, and remains a fertile area for academic research into the next decade. The findings reveal that the IB adoption literature can be classified according to three main themes: whether the papers seek to describe the phenomenon (descriptive); whether they seek to understand the interplay between the factors that drive adoption (relational); or whether they seek to draw higher level conclusions through a comparison across populations, channels or methods (comparative). A comprehensive list of references is presented, along with an agenda for future research that targets identified gaps in the literature.
Internet banking; Adoption; Bank customers
Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is an efficient tool for evaluating mutual fund performance. It is important for investors to select the best funds for investment. In evaluation of mutual fund performance, besides quantitative elements, there are many qualitative elements that are of importance to the investors. In this paper, value efficiency analysis (VEA) was used in mutual funds performance evaluation to incorporate the investors judgements about qualitative elements into the evaluation. Also, the results of this approach were compared with those of general DEA models. This approach is based on choosing convenient variables (inputs and outputs) by reviewing the past studies. Then the input/output data are analysed using the concept of value efficiency, a novel procedure for incorporating the decision maker’s preferences into DEA via the most preferred solution (MPS).
DEA; data envelopment analysis; value efficiency analysis; VEA; mutual funds; performance evaluation; fund performance; investor judgement; investment.
Efficiency in the mutual fund (MF), is one of the issues that has attracted many investors in countries with advanced financial market for many years. Due to the need for frequent study of MF’s efficiency in short-term periods, investors need a method that not only has high accuracy, but also high speed. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is proven to be one of the most widely used methods in the measurement of the efficiency and productivity of decision making units (DMUs). DEA for a large dataset with many inputs/outputs would require huge computer resources in terms of memory and CPU time. This paper uses neural network back-propagation DEA in measurement of mutual funds efficiency and shows the requirements, in the proposed method, for computer memory and CPU time are far less than that needed by conventional DEA methods and can therefore be a useful tool in measuring the efficiency of a large set of MFs.
mutual funds; data envelopment analysis; back-propagation DEA; neural networks; large datasets; efficiency.
In recent years, with the development of digital environment, one of the concepts that have been particularly important is digital identification of objects in this environment by digital identifier systems. The main objective of this study is to answer this important and basic question: How and on what framework can distinguish a digital object identifier system from other identifier systems? To achieve this goal, a comparative framework which consisted of 7 main characteristics of digital identifiers in three major domains (namely identifier features, digital coverage and comprehensiveness of scope) was proposed. Then, an illustrative comparison of 23 well-known worldwide identifiers was carried out. Results of this study revealed that six identifier systems of DOI, Handle, UCI, ARK, URN and PURL can be regarded as the best choices of digital identifiers in public areas identified in the digital space and four identifier systems of ORCID, MIRIAM, ISNI and NBN are the best options to be used in certain specialized areas. These results can help information technology specialists to identify and effectively use of digital identifier systems in actual and potential practical areas.
Digital identifier systems, Object, Digital Environment, Illustrative comparison
This is the first review of the e-lending domain in digital libraries. It identifies the key works related to e-lending, categorizes them, provides an overview and identifies emerging research issues.
E-book, E-lending, E-book lending, Digital Library, Systematic Review
(2015) International Journal of E-Business Research, 11, 4, 17-32. (Indexing)
Knowledge-based economies rely greatly on intangible assets. Based on its features, a business model can be an intangible asset; by posing barriers to imitation, it can create competitive advantage and increase a company’s value. Hence, a business model’s financial valuation is of great importance. Accordingly, the main objective of the present study is to design a process to valuate business models, using income approach and the concept of competitive advantage. An active corporation engaged in daily deal business was chosen as a case study. Its business model is identified and then valued using the proposed process. The results revealed that the process has reasonable accuracy. Financial valuation of business models is useful for bridging the gap between book value and market value, increasing a firm’s ability to raise capital from venture capitalists, improving bargaining power in M&A contracts and providing support in the case of litigation.
Business Model, Competitive Advantage, Daily Deal Business, Financial Valuation, Income Approach, Intangible Asset
With rapid growth of information technology and existing competitive market in banking affairs of Iran we observe that the adoption subject of electronic banking by customers have been considered by banks. One of new emergent application of electronic banking is internet banking (IB). This research has studied the effect of dimensions concept of the perceived risk of customers based on their intention in adoption of IB. The obtained results of employing Structural Equation Modeling and Confirmatory Factor Analysis show that the time, performance, security, financial and privacy risks are the main ones in reducing the intention of customers to adopt IB. Apart them, the social risk has a little negative effect on IB adoption. Based on the results, some suggestions have been presented to reduce the aforementioned risks.
internet banking, adoption, perceived risk dimensions
Internet Banking (IB) is the term used for the new age banking system. Actually, IB is revolutionizing the banking industry and is no longer seen as merely an additional delivery channel. Despite the advantages of IB, recent views suggest that IB may not achieve the levels of transformation as predicted. Due to this fact, adoption has become one of the discussed topics in the research area of this banking delivery channel. Knowing the determinants on IB adoption could help banking companies improve their service to attract more users. This research has been conducted to find decisive factors in the adoption and usage of IB through a developed technology acceptance model. Based on this model, the application of this technology is dependent on behavioral intention, which is, in turn, affected by perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived self-efficacy and perceived risk. The questionnaire used in this study was distributed to Eghtesad Novin Bank customers and 381 effective responses were received. Then, the gathered data were analyzed using a three step method, consisting of the Chi squire test, a correlation test and regression analysis. The findings of the study indicate that perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and perceived self-efficacy have positive effects on the adoption of IB. Despite research hypotheses, perceived risk has a beneficial effect on the adoption of IB. Moreover, behavioral intention has a positive impact on the utilization of this service. The managerial implications of the study are that, with information and training courses, the banks should provide conditions under which bank customers feel that the use of IB service is easy and is easily accessible. Advertising through mass media, newspapers, bank websites and other media, printing information brochures and help booklets can introduce the advantages and ease of use of IB compared with traditional banking. Bank managers can also increase the confidence and self-efficacy of customers using IB services by computer and Internet training courses for traditional banking customers and using demonstrations to teach them how to use this service.
Internet Banking, Behavioral Intention, Self-efficacy, Risk, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)
Identifier is one of the main elements in identifying an object in digital environment. Digital identifier systems were developed followed by a lot of problems such as violation of persistency and uniqueness of physical identifiers and URL in digital environment. These identifiers try to guarantee uniqueness and persistency of hostnames by using indirect names for Domain Name System (DNS). The main objective of this research is to identify qualified digital identifier system among other systems. To achieve the research objective, researchers have considered two major steps: first, identifying main criteria for distinguishing digital identifier based on literature review and focus group interview and second, performing a comparative evaluation on common identifier systems in the world. Findings of first step demonstrated seven main criteria in three domains for distinguishing digital identifier systems: identifier uniqueness and persistency in the identifier features domain, digital identification, digital uniqueness, digital persistency and digital actionability in the digital coverage domain, and globality in the comprehensiveness of scope domain. In the second step, results of the comparative evaluation on common identifier systems indicated that six identifier systems, included, DOI, Handle, UCI, URN, ARK and PURL, are appropriate choices for using as a digital identifier system. Also, according to these results, three identification systems Including NBN, MARIAM and ISNI were identified as suitable choices for digital identification in certain specialized fields. According to many benefits of using these identifiers in important applied fields, such as, digital content chains and networks integration, digital right management, cross referencing, digital libraries and citation analysis, results of this study can help digital environment experts to diagnose digital identifier and their effective use in applied fields.
Digital Identifier Systems, Object, Digital environment, Comparative evaluation,
With the development of Internet of things (IOT) technologies in recent years, the development of knowledge management systems based on them, as well as the role of these systems in different organizational areas such as staff performance management should be considered. The objective of this study is to design an application based on the IOT, and analysis of its role in staff performance improvement. The methodology of this study is action research based on the design of information systems with RAD approach and prototyping design method, and focus on one of the performance indicators of the Yazd municipality staff, namely daily working time. The proposed knowledge management based structure to control the entry and exit of staff in the case of study, and implementation of its prototype indicated that IOT can play roles in improving staff performance in six specific areas in two parts of data collection and management of entry and exit. In general, IOT could be used as a reliable basis to generate required data for knowledge management in knowledge based processes, especially knowledge discovery in physical and digital environments.
Internet Of Things (IOT), Knowledge Management, municipality, RFID, staff performance management
The main solution to the problems of persistency and uniqueness in identification of digital objects in a web environment is provided by using digital Identifiers instead of the URL. The main basic of this solution is resolution mechanism that is used in digital identifier systems. Resolution is the use of indirect names instead of URLs; what worked for the DNS (Domain Name System) in stabilizing internet hostnames should work for digital object references. Considering that this mechanism is known as the technical backbone of the digital identifier systems, these systems are trying different ways to implement this mechanism with high technical and content quality. Accordingly, performance evaluation of the resolution Structure in digital identifier systems is considered in this study. To achieve this goal, two-step process was designed and implemented on the basis of illustrative evaluation method. In the first step, the basic framework of metadata structure component evaluation was designed with Delphi method. Designed basic Framework in this step contains 9 performance indicators: Conceptual and technical persistency of resolution, Interoperability, reliability, speed and performance, scalability, multiple resolution, Internet functionality and no need to install. In the second step, according to the designed basic framework, an illustrative comparison of 6 well-known worldwide digital identifier systems was carried out, using TOPSIS method. Results of this study revealed that DOI, Handle and UCI identifier systems show high performance in their metadata structure, PURL and ARK systems respectively have mediocre and low efficiency in this component and URN Systems do not have any performance in this component due to the lack of Implemented resolution structures. Analysis of the results also indicated that the main reasons for high performance systems are using of Web proxy as a user interface, increase the speed and performance using solutions such as replication and cache and implementation of multiple resolution mechanisms. The results of this study can be used by researchers of this field and administrators and users of these systems.
Digital Identifier System, Resolution Structure, Performance, Comparative Evaluation,
The main solution to the problems of persistency and uniqueness in identification of digital objects in a web environment is provided by using digital Identifiers instead of the URL. The main basic of this solution is resolution mechanism that is used in digital identifier systems. Resolution is the use of indirect names instead of URLs; what worked for the DNS (Domain Name System) in stabilizing internet hostnames should work for digital object references. Considering that this mechanism is known as the technical backbone of the digital identifier systems, these systems are trying different ways to implement this mechanism with high technical and content quality. Accordingly, performance evaluation of the resolution Structure in digital identifier systems is considered in this study.To achieve this goal, two-step process was designed and implemented on the basis of illustrative evaluation method. In the first step, the basic framework of metadata structure component evaluation was designed with Delphi method. Designed basic Framework in this step contains 9 performance indicators: Conceptual and technical persistency of resolution, Interoperability, reliability, speed and performance, scalability, multiple resolution, Internet functionality and no need to install. In the second step, according to the designed basic framework, an illustrative comparison of 6 well-known worldwide digital identifier systems was carried out, using TOPSIS method. Results of this study revealed that DOI, Handle and UCI identifier systems show high performance in their metadata structure, PURL and ARK systems respectively have mediocre and low efficiency in this component and URN Systems do not have any performance in this component due to the lack of Implemented resolution structures. Analysis of the results also indicated that the main reasons for high performance systems are using of Web proxy as a user interface, increase the speed and performance using solutions such as replication and cache and implementation of multiple resolution mechanisms. The results of this study can be used by researchers of this field and administrators and users of these systems.
Digital Identifier System, Resolution Structure, Performance, Comparative Evaluation
Electronic Theses and dissertation, ETD, Pathology
The emergence and increasing development of information technologies, has affected the human lives nowadays, and offers speed, efficiency, flexibility and innovation to its users. The success of this phenomenon depends on its acceptance and use by the target population. Rejection and consequent failure of the technology leads to a waste of resources; thus identifying the factors affecting the adoption of a technology is of great important. One of the application areas of information technology is the field of urban public transport and electronic ticket. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors affecting the adoption of electronic ticket by citizens. For this purpose, this study examined the effect of perceived risks (including time, financial, performance, social, security and privacy) on adoption of the electronic ticket among the citizens of Yazd city based on the theory of perceived risk. Results from using structural equations modeling and confirmatory factor analysis showed that financial, performance, time, order, security and privacy risks are main reducing the intentions of citizens to adoption electronic ticket, social risk is very small negative effect on the adoption intention. Based on these results, strategies to reduce significantly the risk of adoption electronic ticket was presented to the citizens of the city of Yazd.
adoption, electronic ticket, urban public transport, perceived risk Theory (PRT)
In recent years, many administrative organizations have executed inter organizational process improving projects in direction with their transformation plans. But, sometimes a process is shared between several organizations and then in addition to internal problems into each organization, the problems related to linkage between them and coordinating their processes also increase complexity of this subject. Information technology is an enabler tool for process reengineering. In this paper, two roles of IT in process optimization including 1) process combinations for creating new process, and 2) changing process data flow, are considered in the form of two models: a short range model for improving and a long range model for reengineering of the process of investment on industry area in Yazd province. The Examinations showed that nearly 80% of solutions in short range model were executive, and the most favorable result of this model is 17% reduction in time process. On the other hand, although implementing of long range model requires providing many common infrastructures and capabilities in organizations involving in this process, but evaluation of its results will be presented dramatic economical savings.
Multi Organizational Process, Reengineering, Information Technology (IT), Process Improving, Investment
Identifier is one of the main elements in identifying an object or entity in digital environment. Digital identifier systems were developed followed by a lot of problems such as violation of persistency and uniqueness of physical identifiers and URL in digital identification of objects or entity. These identifiers guarantee uniqueness and persistency of hostnames by using indirect names for Domain Name System (DNS). Given the importance of these identifiers in the management of contents in the digital environment, according to the survey, no system has been created for this purpose in Iran. Also, no research has been done in order to design of a framework for evaluating the components of digital identifier systems in the world And continuing into, to design and validation of a national system in order to unique identification of digital objects and information entities in Persian language. It becomes more important, according to the current needs of Iran to this system in fields such as citation systems, scientific publications, web archiving and e-commerce and also distinctly different of Iran in the areas such as: existence of national information network infrastructure and lack of mechanisms to implement intellectual property rights in the digital environment. On the other hand, digital identifier systems in the world have serious shortcomings in the areas of identification conceptual levels, identifier allocation, multiple resolution and discovery of property rights violation. Therefore, the main objective of this research is to design a National digital identifier System for information entities and objects, which provides practical solutions to the shortcomings mentioned. In this study, based on the pragmatism paradigm and applied approach, after identification of the applications and requirements and cognitive evaluation (based on a framework consists of 7 main criteria in 3 areas of identifier features, digital coverage and comprehensiveness of scope ) and quality evaluation (based on a framework consists of 7 components and 64 performance indicators) of the main digital identifier systems in the world ,consists of ARK, DOI, Handle, PURL, UCI and URN in analysis satage, conceptual design of Persian Entity Digital Identifier system was performed based on the throwaway prototyping methodology. The results of conceptual design and proposed solutions validation with three methods of benchmarking, prototyping and usage metrics showed that this conceptual design, while having adequate validity, offers practical valid solutions to address the noted shortcomings. The results of this study can be used by researchers of science and technology, administrators of these systems for using these results in their future plans, and potential users of digital identifiers in Iran, especially in potential and actual application areas of these identifiers.
Digital Identifier Systems, Object, Entity, Digital environment, Conceptual Design
One of the major issues banks are faced with in providing Internet Banking (IB) services is the issue of adoption of these services by the costumers. The present study considers two concepts of the dimensions of the perceived risk and IB awareness simultaneously. It, also, in its research model, investigates the effect of IB awareness on each dimension of the perceived risk and the effect of these dimensions on costumers’ intention of IB adoption. The results indicate that IB awareness acts as a factor reducing all dimensions of the perceived risk (including time, financial, performance, social, security, and privacy). In addition, it was found that except for social risk, other dimensions of the perceived risk have significantly negative effect on the intention of IB adoption. Finally, proving the direct and positive effect of IB awareness on adoption intention, it was concluded that IB awareness has a moderating role in the negative effects of the dimensions of the perceived risk on IB adoption intention. Considering these results, management approaches centering on the concept of IB awareness are offered for reducing the dimensions of costumers’ perceived risk.
Internet banking, Adoption, Dimensions of the Perceived Risk, Awareness
Content is a term that has been highly regarded by researchers and practitioners of different fields, to the extent that it has been referred to the King. However, different researchers have approached the definition of content from a specific point of view so that such differences in conceptions and definitions sometimes lead to controversies. So the main question is taken into consideration in this study is: What is really content?. In order to answer this question, in this study after identifying the different definitions of this term in different contexts, based on comparative evaluation method, these definitions are compared. After that, based on analysis of these results, a conceptual framework called (3C) is proposed for describing the process of content creation and integrating content definitions. This framework, through a simple but efficient representation, intends to offer an operational definition of content which can be used in all fields of research and practice. According to this framework, content is a subjective creation in the mind of work creator which has different expressions and manifestations. It is transferred through appropriate conduits to the respective conduitee by being placed in containers of different kinds like product, service, or procedure. The framework indicates that the concept of content is the outcome of multiple processes malfunctioning one of which renders it meaningless. Then, in order to validate the proposed framework, it has been interpreted in three different contexts. The result of this analysis shows that the proposed framework is valid. In the end, as suggestions for the future, questions have been raised that researchers can respond to them in order to develop this framework.
Intellectual process, Content, Conduit, Conduitee, Operational Definition, Creation